Person NameCromwell; Richard (1626-1712); Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1658-1659)
TitleLord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1658-1659)
ActivityThe Cromwell family was descended from the sister of Henry VIII's Chief Minister Thomas Cromwell. They were comfortably in the minor gentry but when Richard was born his father was not especially wealthy, as his uncle had inherited most of the family's estates. Being educated at a public school and acquiring a degree of knowledge of the law were fairly typical of the landed gentry, though there is no record of Richard having attended university. Had his father not become a leading figure in the conflicts of the 1640s Richard would likely have remained in relative obscurity. He spent some time fighting in the New Model Army in the late 1640s, though does not seem to have distinguished himself. Following the death of Charles I he seems to have been content to take on relatively minor roles and live off the proceeds of his estate in Hursley. He served in various roles in the 1650s including JP and MP, but his most notable office is serving as the successor of his father as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, a position with essentially dictatorial powers. He only held this role from September 1658 to May 1659 and has often been seen as ineffective in this position, though others defend him as inheriting an untenable position. For twenty years after he was deposed he travelled the courts of Europe, living for a time in Paris then Geneva, and thereafter retired to live in obscurity supported by the proceeds of his estate in Hursley appearing to the world as just another minor gentleman.
RelationshipsFather: Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)
Mother: Elizabeth Cromwell nee Bourchier (1598-1665)
Spouse: Dorothy Maijor (c.1620-1675)
Children: Elizabeth Cromwell (1650-1731)
Edward Cromwell (1644-1688)
Anne Cromwell (1651-1652)
Mary Cromwell (1654)
Oliver Cromwell (1656-1705)
Dorothy Cromwell (1657-1658)
Anna Cromwell (1659-1727)
Dorothy Cromwell (1660-1681)
Linked entries in the catalogue
KAcc731/G/63Oliver Cromwell to Col. Norton; further plans for the above marriage discussed with Mr Major
KAcc731/G/103Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; health matters.
KAcc731/B/15Report by Henry Cromwell to the Proctector
KAcc731/G/107Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; pious plattitudes and family news.
KAcc731/G/106Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; health and family news.
KAcc731/G/99Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; further news of the invalid; family news.
KAcc731/G/92Richard Cromwell to 'Deare hearts' [Elizabeth Cromwell and Ann Gibson], signed 'Cranberry'. Family news.
KAcc731/G/113Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; discusses her brother's marriage plans.
KAcc731/G/89Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; her mother's illness.
KHAC2/2828Letters from Puritan Divines to Richard Cromwell's wife
KAcc731/G/122Richard Cromwell to Mrs Sophia Leadbetter; re illness.
KAcc731/G/117Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; describes a visit to Mrs Gibson.
KAcc731/G/93Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; discusses clothes and the weather.
KAcc731/G/119Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; gives his opinion on the disposal of her late brother's estate.
KAcc731/G/112Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; mentions 'Your new settled Family' including Mr and Mrs Leadbeater.
KAcc731/H/141Bond for repayment of £600 by Richard Cromwell to Thomas Darell esq. of Trewornam, Cornwall
KAcc731/G/109Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; mentions Cousin Morse.
KAcc731/G/105Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; 'nothing new to write'.
KAcc731/G/86Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; greetings and spiritual advice.
KAcc731/G/115Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; mentions Dr and Mrs Gibson.
KAcc731/G/111Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; refers to family negotiations.
KHP46/30/6/1Richard Cromwell, Protector
KAcc731/E/49Papers concerning property at Cheshunt, Herts
KAcc731/K/190Petition of Officers of the Army.
KAcc731/G/97Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; concerns the illness of Mr Pengelly's son.
KAcc731/G/90Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; her mother's illness.
KAcc731/A/10Exemplification by Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, of a judgment in the Court of Upper Bench
KAcc731/G/84Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; expressing his prayers for her spiritual good.
KAcc731/G/83Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; complains of the conduct of her brother [Oliver].
KAcc731/G/114Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; describes Christmas food; mentions intention to visit Hatton Garden next week.
KAcc731/G/95Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; containing news of Parliament; signed 'J.Marden'.
KAcc731/G/104Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; mentions 'your brother and sister Mortemar'.
KAcc731/G/102Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; family news. Addressed 'att Madam Horsmans in Bartlett Street, Holborne'.
KAcc731/G/87Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; family matters; mentions 'your sister D', 'your mother', 'your brothers'.
KAcc731/G/121Richard Cromwell to Mrs Sophia Leadbetter; re illness.
KAcc731/G/62Oliver Cromwell to Col. Richard Norton, concerning a plan for marriage [of his son Richard Cromwell]
KAcc731/K/197A Short Genealogical Review of the Family of Oliver Cromwell; anon. [By Richard Gough; Society of Antiquities Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica no. XXXI, 1785; xviii pp + 2 tables + 64 pp.]
KAcc731/G/85Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth: discusses his health; mentions his landlord's son, to be found a trade.
KAcc731/G/82Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver, to his daughter Elizabeth; concerns the marriage of her sister [Ann]
KAcc731/G/101Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; comments on health and the weather; mention of 'Madam Ann' , 'your brother' and 'your cozen Moss'.
KAcc731/G/116Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; describes the invovement of Dr and Mrs Gibson in a friend's arrest for debt; discusses the making of some new clothes.
KAcc731/G/91Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; plans for the future; signed 'Richardson'. Dorse: draft of Elizabeth Cromwell's reply; details of her proposed removal [to London].
KAcc731/D/26Marriage settlement for the marriage of Richard Cromwell and Dorothy Major
KAcc731/G/118Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; gives Elizabeth full power to act in accordance with an enclosed letter re the sale of wood at Hursley; signed 'R. Cromwell'.
KAcc731/G/96Richard Cromwell to Mrs Anne Gibson; expressions of affection.
KAcc731/G/120Richard Cromwell to Mrs Sophia Leadbetter; re illness; 'present these to your lady'.
KAcc731/G/98Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; addressed 'For Mr Edward Reyner att Hursley, neare Winchester' but begins 'Deare Madam'.
KAcc731/G/88Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; health matters; mentions 'your mother.'
KAcc731/G/100Richard Cromwell to 'Deare hearts'; discusses his and their ailments.
KAcc731/G/108Richard Cromwell to Elizabeth; arranging to meet in London.
KAcc731/G/64Oliver Cromwell to his son Richard, concerning the aforesaid marriage
KAcc731/B/19Patent of Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, appointing his brother Henry Governor General of Ireland; with the Great Seal of the Protectorate.
KAcc731/B/21Exemplification by Richard Cromwell of the enrolment of a Commission to enquire into Protectorate lands in County Tyrone, and of an Inquisition taken at Strabane, 25 Feb 1658
KHAC5/5742Folder of Cromwell Association correspondence and papers
KAR56/5/15William Parker v. Elizabeth and Thomas Parker. Exemplification of a Fine, levied in Trinity Term, 1655, relating to 165 acres land, 6 acres meadow, and 1 acre pasture in Bottisham, with certificate of 4 proclamations. Consideration, £120.
KAcc731Bush Collection of Cromwell documents
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